ReDO: diclofenac as an anti-cancer agent
Diclofenac (DCF) is a well-known and widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. While there has long been an interest in the use of NSAIDs in chemoprevention, there is now emerging evidence that such drugs may have activity in a treatment setting. DCF, which is a potent inhibitor of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis, displays a range of effects on the immune system, the angiogenic cascade, chemo- and radio-sensitivity and tumour metabolism. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. Based on this evidence the case is made for further clinical investigation of the anticancer effects of DCF, particularly in combination with other agents - with a range of possible multi-drug and multi-modality combinations outlined in the supplementary materials accompanying the main paper.